D-limonene/Limonene

Limonene

Studies have shown that limonene have anti- cancer effects. Limonene increase the levels of liver enzymes involved in detoxifying carcinogens. The Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a system which eliminates carcinogens. Limonene seems to promote the GST system in the liver and small bowel, thereby decreasing the damaging effects of carcinogens. Animal studies demonstrated that dietary limonene reduced mammary tumor growth.

Limonene and Orange Oil: Potent Anti-Cancer Ingredient

Besides being such an effective mind and body healer, new research has shown that limonene, a component that makes up greater than 90% of pure orange oil, has amazing anti-cancer properties. The limonene (also known as d-limonene) in orange essential oil can be effective in fighting melanoma, liver, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers.1 For skin cancers, people use limonene topically; it can also be taken internally as an effective natural cancer treatment and preventative.

D-limonene/Limonene

-limonene is a monterpene, a compound from plants found to cure tumors and cancers. The best source of d-limonene is the oil from orange peels. Researchers at the University of Wisconsin found that when d-limonene was added to the diets of rats that had developed tumors, 90% of tumors disappear completely. One way to have a d-limonene intake is to juice the orange and the peel together - just make sure the oranges are organically grown. Monoterpenes possess many characteristics of ideal chemopreventive agents, namely, efficacious anti-tumor activity, commercial availability, low cost, oral bioavailability, and low toxicity, which made it feasible to begin considering them for human cancer chemoprevention testing. Most essential oils include monoterpenes--compounds that contain 10 carbon molecules often arranged in a ring. Monoterpenes are formed in the mevalonic acid pathway in plants, the same pathway that makes cholesterol in animals and humans. D-limonene, which comprises more than 90% of orange peel oil, has chemopreventive activity against rodent mammary, skin, liver, lung, and fore stomach cancers. D-limonene also has chemotherapeutic activity against rodent pancreatic tumors. Because d-limonene and perillyl affect the pathway that produces cholesterol, they can inhibit cholesterol synthesis, thereby eliminating a minor contributor to cancer formation. Monoterpenes also increase the levels of liver enzymes involved in detoxifying carcinogens, an effect that decreases the possibility carcinogens will cause cellular damage. In addition, monoterpenes stimulate apoptosis, a cellular self-destruction mechanism triggered when a cellís DNA is badly damaged. This safety feature is generally activated before a cell becomes cancerous. Finally, monoterpenes inhibit protein isoprenylation. The cell uses this process to help a particular protein involved in cell growth find its proper location within the cell. If the protein is not in the right place, it becomes overactive and can spur cancerous cell growth. Thus, monoterpenes would appear to act through multiple mechanisms in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer. A number of dietary monoterpenes have anti-tumor activity, exhibiting not only the ability to prevent the formation or progression of cancer, but to reverse existing malignant tumors. Dlimonene has well-established chemopreventive activity against many cancer types. Dlimonene has been shown to inhibit the development of spontaneous neoplasms in mice receiving 1200 mg/kg orally (NTP 1990). Also see Monoterpenes.

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