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Soy Glossary Or Whatisit?

Aburage Isoflavones Soynut Butter
Vegetable Protein
Atsuage Kooridofu Soybean Sprouts
Edamamé Lecithin Soynuts
Flour Margarine Soy oil
Ganmodoki Miso Tempeh
GE Natto Tofu
GEO Okara Vegetable Oil
GMO Organic Vegetable Shortening
Grits Roundup Ready™ Yakidofu
Vegetable Oil
Roundup Yuba


Japanese term for thin slices of tofu drained and fried in oil. Oil can be removed by placing slices in boiling water and draining. It is used in Japanese vegetarian (shojin, nimono) dishes because of its flavorful meat-like nature. Also called in Japanese usuage or inariage for use in inarizushi.

Archer Daniels Midland Company

ADM is engaged in the business of procuring, transporting, processing and marketing agricultural products. It is one of the world's largest processors of oilseeds, soy, corn, wheat and cocoa, with over 23,000 employees worldwide, 368 processing plants and net sales for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2000 of $18.6 billion. http://www.admworld.com/


Japanese term for thick slices of tofu drained and fried in oil. Oil can be removed by placing slices in boiling water and draining. It is used in Japanese vegetarian (shojin, nimono) dishes because of its flavorful meat-like nature.

Biodiesel Biodiesel is a clean-burning alternative fuel that can be made from materials such as vegetable oils, animal fats, and spent cooking greases. Typically, biodiesel is prepared by the reaction of fat or oil with alcohol under alkaline conditions. Soy-based biodiesel is the most commonly used form. By Don Comis, ARS.


(Edamamé pronounced ed-ah-MAH-may) Soybeans can be harvested young, about three-quarters ripe, before they become oily and starchy. These sweet tasting beans, often of a larger variety, are served as a green vegetable either in or out of the pod. They can be found both fresh and frozen in various markets.

The frozen pods are usually steamed or boiled for about 8-10 minutes and simply seasoned with salt, sea salt or soy sauce. The pods are often served as a snack or appetizer. The peel and eat nature adds to the fun.

The peeled fresh (as opposed to dry) beans are cooked until tender 8 to 20 minutes, seasoned with salt or other seasonings, and served as a vegetable dish. As a green bean the preparations are numerous including pickles, hot in various sauces, and cold in salad preparations.

Ethanol Ethanol is an alcohol-based fuel produced by fermenting sugars from crop starches. Currently, 95 percent of ethanol is produced from corn kernels. About 5 percent of U.S. ethanol is made from sugar- and starch-containing materials other than corn. These include wheat, barley, and sorghum grains; sugarcane; cheese whey; and wastes from paper mills, potato processing plants, breweries, and beverage manufacturers—or some combination of these materials.

Originally, most ethanol was made through wet-milling, which means the starch is separated from the corn germ and fiber and liquefied by cooking. The liquefying creates sugars in a form that can be fermented with yeast to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. The ethanol is then removed from the slurry.

The number of ethanol plants has surged in the past few years, and dry-milling is now the method used for over half of the ethanol currently produced. In this process, kernels are ground to a fine powder, and all of it is cooked to liquefy it, without removing the germ or fiber. Different enzymes are added at different stages and temperatures as the mash cools, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide.—By Don Comis, ARS.


Soy flour is made from whole roasted soybeans, which is milled to a fine texture. It may be defatted, that is, the soy oil may be removed during processing. Defatted soy flour has a long shelf life without refrigeration. Full fat soy flour must be refrigerated to retard spoilage. Soy flour has no leavening properties, so cannot replace flour completely in a breads and muffins, but it has great baking enhancement qualities when it replaces one-fourth to one-third of the regular flour.


This is a Japanese term for tofu mixed with yam, egg white and other ingredients and fried. It is also known as hirousu or hiryozu.


Genetic engineering or genetically engineered.


Genetically engineered organism.


Genetically modified organism often used interchangeably with GEO.


Soy grits are soybeans, which have been roasted and cracked into coarse pieces.

HVP or Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein

This is a protein obtained from soybeans as well as other vegetables. This is a flavor enhancer used in many foods. It is derived by breaking down the soy protein by acid hydrolysis into amino acids.


These are a type of phytochemical or plant chemical. Some isoflavones are classified as phytoestrogens because their chemical structure is similar to human estrogen. They act as weak estrogens in the body. They are known to protect against heart disease in several ways including decreasing LDL (bad cholesterol) and increasing HDL (good cholesterol).


It is the Japanese term for freeze dried tofu. It is also known as koyadofu or shimidofu.


An extract from soybean oil and eggs with health benefits to humans, lecithin has great emulsification properties. In foods high in fat such as mayonnaise, salad dressings and chocolate it helps hold the ingredients in suspension. In non-stick cooking spray it helps make the cooking surface slippery.


A rich salty paste, originated in China and developed in Japan, made from salted soybeans alone and in mixtures with grains such as wheat and rice, which is cultured and aged. By varying the combination of ingredients and the length of aging the miso will have a wide range of color and taste. Soy sauce was originally a byproduct drained off the miso. The Japanese call the culturing agents, koji, which vary from region to region in Japan.

  • Rice miso is the most widely used
  • Wheat miso is usually red and soft
  • Bean miso is dark red
  • Sweet flavored miso is white and contains more culture, koji, than salt
  • Salty miso is red and contains more salt than culture, koji.


This is the name for soybeans, which have been cooked and fermented. The process breaks down the complex proteins into a more readily digested food. The beans are coated with a sticky substance and have a cheesy texture. A great favorite in Asian countries, it is used as a topping for rice, vegetables, and mixed in soup.


Also known in Japanese as Unohana. This is the soy pulp byproduct in the manufacture of soymilk. This is what remains when the soymilk is strained. Okara has high quality soy protein and a taste similar to coconut. It is used is various food products from cereal to sausages. The Japanese at times flavor the pulp with a broth and fry it in oil until the water is evaporated.


US consumers to enjoy new Organic labeling American shoppers will soon find a US Department of Agriculture (USDA) label on organic fruits, vegetables and meats produced without pesticides or hormones, the USDA said in December 2000 as it announced new rules on organic food, The final regulations can be found here.
The organic standards had been eagerly sought by U.S. food companies, environmentalists and some lawmakers to help guide consumers seeking alternatives to genetically modified crops and hormone-injected livestock. "This is the strongest and most comprehensive organic standard in the world," U.S. Agriculture Secretary Dan Glickman said at a news conference.
Under the new national standard, foods labeled "organic" cannot include bioengineered ingredients or be irradiated to kill bacteria and lengthen shelf life. Meats sold as organic cannot be produced from animals that receive antibiotics. Consumers will be able to recognize organic products by a USDA mark they will carry, similar to the "USDA Prime" identification on beef or the grade labels on egg cartons. Foods will be labeled "100 percent organic," "organic" or "made with organic ingredients," depending on ingredients. Products labeled "organic" must consist of at least 95 percent organically produced ingredients. Foods "made with organic ingredients" must contain at least 70 percent organic ingredients. Food manufacturers will be allowed to label their products' exact percentage of organic content, the USDA said. Processed products that contain less than 70 percent ingredients cannot use the term organic anywhere on the principal display panel, the USDA continued.
The label "organic" had previously fallen under a mixture of state, regional and private certifier standards, giving rise to confusion about its meaning.

Roundup Ready™

A type of genetically engineered crop such as soybeans designed to be resistant to Roundup. Roundup Ready crops enable farmers to spray Roundup on their fields and kill all of the weeds without killing their crops.


An herbicide manufactured by Monsanto.

Glycine max, Leguminosae

Soybeans grow in oblong fuzz-covered pods on one to six foot high branching plants. The one to two inch pods can be gray, brown, black, or pale yellow and contain one to four hard seeds of colors specific to each particular variety. There are infinite uses for this bean with only one restriction in use as a food, that it must be cooked or fermented. These processes neutralize its antinutrient properties, trypsin and phytic acid inhibitors, and make the bean more easily digested, assimilated and open up its infinite wonders!

The amazing fruit of an Asian annual plant, the soy (or soya) bean has been cultivated for at least 5,000 years. It is one of the first foods to have been cultivated by humans. It has been enjoyed in Manchuria (its probable origin), Korea, China, and Japan since ancient times. We credit the Japanese with the word soy. The Chinese revered soy most highly as one of the five essential grains of life, namely, soy, rice, millet, wheat, and barley. 5000 years ago the emperor of China classified the soybean as a sacred plant. Today soy, along with fish and beef make up the three major sources of protein for the world.

Soybean Sprouts

Although not as common in the marketplace as mung bean sprouts and alfalfa sprouts they are a very popular ingredient in many Asian dishes such as egg rolls and stir fries. Soy sprouts, or soybean sprouts as they are also known, are an excellent source of protein, vitamins, and minerals. Sprouting soybeans increases dramatically their vitanim C, iron, and thiamine content. As a fresh vegetable they are fully grown in 3 to 4 days from food grade soybeans. They are mild tasting, yet add interesting texture to a variety of dishes. Before being used raw in salads the bean sprouts should be steamed for 30 seconds and rinsed in cold water. Otherwise, the sprouts can be added unblanched to soups, casseroles, and main dishes. Briefly sauted sprouts develop their nutty flavor and can be flavorful additions to sauces, cookies and various baked goods. The sprouts can be spread out and dried in a 250-degree oven for an hour or so. The dried sprouts can be enjoyed as a snack or they can be added to various dishes and baked goods as a replacement for nuts.

Soynut Butter

Whole roasted soybeans ground and mixed with soy oil and perhaps other ingredients such as salt. It can be used as other nut butters might be used. It has advantages of lower fat content than peanut butter and may be tolerated by people with nut allergies.


Soynuts are whole soybeans, which have been soaked in water and then baked or roasted in an oven until brown. They are eaten plain, combined into various dishes, or flavored. They can replace nuts in many dishes.

Soy oil

Vegetable Oil

Vegetable Shortening

Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil



One of the most common uses of dried mature soybeans is to press them for their oil. Soy oil is the most widely used oil in the United States, in fact it forms 75 percent of the oil consumed as vegetable fats and oils. Soy oil is found alone and in a variety of food products labeled as soy oil, vegetable oil, hydrogenated vegetable oil, partially hydrogenated soy oil, vegetable shortening, or numerous margarines.

Soy oil is cholesterol-free and very high in polyunsaturates. Cold-pressed unrefined soy oil is a deep amber color with a distinct flavor with overtones of flavors both nutty and fruity. Unrefined soy oil is perhaps best used in small quantities in dishes so as to not overwhelm the other ingredients. Refined soy oil is, however, light in flavor and color. It is perfect in a wide number of uses. Its high smoke point of 450 degrees makes it excellent in frying.


This is a fermented soybean cake. An invention by the Indonesians, this cake has a wonderful cheesy texture and a smoky or nutty flavor. The soybeans may be combined with other grains and vegetables in the processing. The cake must be cooked before it is eaten. The fermentation makes the protein easier to digest.


This is the Japanese term for soybean curd or cake originally created in China 2000 years ago and called doufu (dow-foo) in Chinese. This sort of vegetable cheese is not fermented nor aged. It has a somewhat gelatinous but firm texture, which at times is like firm custard.

  • It is made from soymilk which is curdled by the introduction of a salt or acidic ingredient. This salt may be nigari - a sea salt extract which is magnesium chloride, calcium chloride - derived from a mineral ore, calcium sulfate - gypsum, magnesium sulfate - Epsom salt, vinegar, lemon or lime juice, or lactone. The acidifying agent determines the firmness of the curd.
  • In Japan the firmer type is called momen for cotton and the softer type kinu for silk.
  • Tofu has amazing versatility in cooking in that, while bland tasting by itself, it absorbs the flavors of the food with which it is cooked. Its texture can be adapted to the nature of the dish in which it is prepared. It can be drained (the more it is drained the more it absorbs flavors), pressed, crumbled, ground and braised. It can be used in both sweet and savory dishes.


This is the Japanese term for firm tofu, which is lightly browned on both sides by broiling. A popular New Years dish in Japan is nishime, yakidofu cooked sweet in soy sauce.


This is made from the thin film that forms on the top of hot soymilk. The film is lifted off and dried. It is used as a wrapper for ingredients such as spring or egg rolls, fried into chips, rolled and flavored, and in many other ways.

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